Scaffolding is great for precise individual and group instruction. It is an amazing instructional methodology for teachers to implement in their practice. Below, I have summarized the steps to scaffold.
Excavating – Teacher systemically questions to discover what students know
Modelling – Teacher models what to do and/or how to do it.
Collaborating – Teacher works interactively with students on a tasks to achieve a solution. Teacher contributes ideas, responds to suggestions and invites comments.
Guiding – Teacher observes, listens and monitors students as they work, asks questions designed to help better understand the material & make connections.
Convince Me – Teacher actively seeks evidence, encourages students to be more precise & specific. A teacher continues to encourage students to explain & provide data/explanation for their response.
Focusing – Teacher focuses on specific concept/skill/strategy that students need to improve.
Probing – Teacher evaluates students understanding using specific question/task designed to elicit a range of strategies and presses for clarification.
Orienting – Teacher establishes context by invoking relevant prior knowledge and experience.
Reviewing – Teacher recounts of what was learnt, share ideas and strategies. This typically occurs at the end of the lesson; key ideas are articulated and recorded.
Extending – Teacher uses open-ended questions to explore; extent student’s understanding & provide context for further learning.
Apprenticing – Teacher offers students opportunity to operate in a student-as-teacher capacity.
Provide students the experience to engage with the text
Cultivates high-level thinking and discussions
Use inquiry questions to simulate thinking
Students are reading common text with teacher support and intervention
Text is re-read over a course of time to teach different literacy strategies
Comprehension and fluency are key goals in this component
Small-group differentiated instruction designed to assist individual students learn how to process text
Group students’ at similar level to teach literacy strategies and skills
Teach various strategies and skills
Direct and explicit instruction
Connection to other texts, to self and to the world
Active engagement with the text
Students are reading a book at their level
Students are practicing and reinforcing reading strategies taught during mini-lessons
Develop phonological awareness by having students engage in learning activities to help them hear rhymes, syllables and onset/rimes
Increase phonics skills by teaching students patterns and decoding skills
Build students’ word and structural analysis skills by developing learning activities to allow students to engage with parts of words (prefixes, suffixes, root words, etc.), to decode words and understand meaning
Increase writing skills by teaching proper grammar, writing mechanics and sentence flow
Cultivate writing process by teaching students to communicate ideas, messages and stories.
Engage with different genres of writing
Teacher meets with students individually in order to discuss certain needs and progress of students
Teacher will review a skill or strategy from previous meeting or et a new goal with the student
In this article, John McCarthy suggests three paths that teachers should take to differentiate instruction (DI). McCarthy asserts the nucleus to successful DI is the relationship between teachers and students. The teacher’s role is to connect students to the content, process, and product. Students will respond based upon readiness, interests, and learner profile.
Differentiating Content – Content refers to the skills, concepts, and knowledge students need to learn. Differentiating content means using various methods to deliver content and using various methods to organize/learn content. For example, using videos to explain mathematical equations and providing different techniques to solve mathematical equations. The purpose is to use different instructional strategies to reach diverse learners, and allow students to discover which methods are more effective for them.
Differentiating Process – Process refers to how students make sense of the content. Students need time to reflect and absorb the content. Reflecting is a powerful tool to allow students to absorb the material. This is where the students will self-assess the content, and recognize what they understand and what they don’t understand. At this point, teachers should check for understanding – something simple is thumbs up (understand), thumbs down (don’t understand), thumbs in the middle (sort of understand). According to McCarthy, teachers should have one to two processing experiences every 30 minutes of instruction. A few strategies McCarthy suggests are think-pair-share, journalling, discussions – anything that allows the student to reflect on the learning.
Differentiating Product – Product is the evidence of learning. The product should align with learning outcomes. Teachers need to give students options to how they want to demonstrate their learning. For example, for a novel study project, I gave my students three choices to demonstrate their learning. The three choices were a poem, book cover, or narrative story. Also, students had an option to choose something different as long as they discussed it with me.
In the end, to successfully employee these strategies, teachers need to know their students. Click here to read the entire article.
To apply the strategy of Concept Attainment, follow this general guideline. First, you don’t reveal the concept or show examples but rather tell student they’re going to learn a new concept, and it’s their challenge to discover the concept. Second, you will show them ‘Yes’ examples and ‘No’ examples of the concept (show two of each). Third, students will analyze the examples and create a list of characteristics that they believe define the concept. Fourth, students generate a definition or common qualities to the ‘Yes’ examples. Once this has been completed, you provide students more ‘Yes’ examples to strengthen their understanding; it also serves to refine their list of characteristics. Finally, at the end, students attain an analytically construct concept.
To illustrate, suppose you’re teaching language arts. The concept you want the students to learn is Haiku poetry. You would show students ‘Yes’ examples of Haiku poems and ‘No’ examples of Haiku poems.
Continue with another ‘Yes’ example:
Show another ‘No’ example:
Allow students to analyze the common characteristics of the examples, and generate a list of characteristics that define Haiku poetry. As previously stated, students are guided to a well-crafted definition.
I learned the above strategy from the an article on the Cult of Pedagogy website. Please visit the website to more about Concept Attainment. Click on the image below to be direct to Cult of Pedagogy’s website.
A Mind for Numbers by Barbara Oakley provides an array of techniques and strategies for learning math and science, although the techniques can be applied to other subjects. The book provides diverse methods and informative applications to help readers construct mechanisms that lead to successful learning – these mechanisms can be applied to any subject or concept not only math and science. The key quality of this book is it doesn’t provide an “one size fits all” approach to learning but rather recognizes the diverse needs of learners, and therefore provides the reader with a myriad of strategies. Also, the test preparation checklist (p.239) and ten rules of good studying (p.257) are great tools for students and teachers. I will summarize the main points from the book, and points that I found important.
Oakley provides two main modes of thinking, focused and diffused. She illustrates the importance of each mode for learning and problem solving. Oakley suggests that readers learn how to use the different modes and when and how to shift between the two modes of thinking.
Focus mode – learner’s attention is fixated on the concept (activates the pre-frontal cortex).
Diffuse mode – learner reflects on the concepts or takes a break from learning. When you take a break from learning, you unconsciously switch to the diffuse mode (diffuse thinking is widespread throughout the brain).
Focused mode is concerned with analyzing and interpreting whereas the diffused mode is concerned with the ‘bigger picture’. Oakley attests that learning occurs when you shift between the two modes of thinking.
To learn new ideas, we must use focused thinking initially then switch to diffuse thinking.
Oakley claims that major discoveries and innovations happened during the diffused mode of thinking.
The two crucial memory systems are working memory and long-term memory. Working memory pertains to the material your are directly processing (Oakley suggests processing four ideas at a time). Long-term memory is the hard-drive of the brain. It holds large amounts of information that is accessible.
It’s important to connect new concepts between the working memory and long-term memory; it builds multiple and new neural connections. This is critical for creativity and problem solving.
Another strategy Oakley suggests to improve learning is recall new knowledge to get it imprinted in your long-term memory.
Oakley compares the process of chucking and time-on-task. She reveals that creating connections with information is more effective than rereading, over learning, and rote memorization. Therefore, learning and reading must be active rather than passive. In addition, she asserts that learning strategies of pausing and reflecting are more effective than cramming and stressful learning.
Three steps to chuck material are (1) simply focus on the information you want to chuck, (2) understand basic material you want to chuck, and (3) gain context to see how and when to chuck.
Visuospatial memory is important to learning. The learner should create analogies, visual images and narratives to cultivate the visuospatial memory.
A technique Oakley suggests to use is the memory palace technique. To create a memory palace, the learner should contextualize and integrate concepts into familiar memories. This will strengthen their visuospatial memory.
Two strategies to gain deeper meaning and understanding hidden meaning are (1) simplifying and personifying the object of study and (2) contextual transferring new concepts to previously learned concepts.
At the end of each chapter, Oakley provides the reader with question to deepen their learning (the questions also serve to apply the techniques she’s teaching in the book). I will provide a few that I found informative.
Describe an image you could use to help you remember an important equation.
Pick any listing of four or more key ideas or concepts from any of your classes. Describe how you would encode those ideas as memorable images and tell where you would deposit them in your memory palace.
Explain the memory palace technique in a way that your grandmother could understand.
Take a piece of paper and doodle to create a visual or verbal metaphor for a concept you are trying to understand.
Write a paragraph that describes how some concepts you are studying could be visualized in a play.
A Mind for Numbers is a great read for educators and students. Oakley has provided me with numerous techniques I will implement in the classroom. Great book!
The following steps must be taken to create a balanced assessment environment that inspires student engagement: (1) The students must have input in the assessment tasks, (2) the assessment tasks must be clear, valid and reliable, (3) use an array of assessment tasks, (4) must be communicated effectively, and (5) must be on demand and embedded within the classroom. Here are a few examples: (1) Display an exemplar in the classroom, and have students analyze and compare their work with the exemplar (2) inquiry based assessment – students create a question and use inquiry based methods to answer the question, and (3) allow students to create the rubrics. Furthermore, is it vital to communicate progress with students and parents frequently. I found an article which pertains to the topic and found it very helpful – http://www.eduplace.com/state/author/valencia.pdf.
“Passion exists at the intersection of three or more things you’re really curious about” – Steve Kotler.
This would be a great activity for students to discover what they are passionate about. Teachers need to cultivate student’s curiosity and help develop their passions. A great project to assist students to explore their passion is Genius Hour. I did Genius Hour this year with my students, and they loved it. It allowed students to explore subjects/topics of interest and passion (I had one student do a presentation on the Big Bang – it was amazing!). In the future, to augment my Genius Hour project I will use this as an introductory lesson or anticipatory set to incite enthusiasm. Teachers need to help students to become learner-driven by guiding students to discover their passion and purpose in life.
My first blog post will be the book that helped me in my first year. Upon hearing I will be teaching my first classroom and be carrying the precarious title of ‘first-year teacher’, I researched which book will help me prepare the school year. The feedback I received from teachers were to read, How to be an Effective Teacher: The First Days of School by Harry Wong. Below, I write a few passages I believe helped me prepare for my first year.
“Effective teachers do not ask all the questions at the end of the discussion, class period, video, chapter, or lecture. The effective teacher who wants high-level comprehension intersperses questions throughout all class activities” (p.21). For instance, if you are watching a video, stop the video frequently and ask questions and hold discussions. Research indicates this is more effective compared to asking questions at the end of the video.
Research on Improving Student Achievement (p.31):
Aligned Time on Task: Students who are actively focused on educational goals do best in mastering the subject matter.
Cooperative learning: Students in small, self-instructing groups support and increase one anther’s learning.
Extensive Reading: Extensive reading, both inside and outside of school, result in substantial growth in vocabulary, comprehension abilities, and information base of students.
Wait Time: Pausing after asking a question in the classroom results in increase in achievement.
Warmly welcome students to school everyday.
High expectations have to do with attitude and behaviour. Effective teachers are caring, warm and compassionate people.
“The most effective classes are those where the students are self-disciplined, self-motivated, and self-responsible learners.” (p.97).
“You will greatly increase the chance that school will start successfully for both you and students when these four points are true: (1) Your room is ready, (2) You greet students at the door, (3) You have assigned seating, (4) You have the first assignment ready (the assignment should be short, successfully for all students and interesting)”. (p.109)
“Ask any student who enters the room inappropriately to return to the door and enter appropriately. Do not send anyone out of the room but rather to the door; ‘out of the room’ has a negative connotation”. Never talk negatively to student but rather talk calmly, and do the following: (1) Ask student to return to the door, (2) Tell the student why, (3) Give directions for correctly entering the room, (4) check for understanding, and (5) Acknowledge the understanding.” (p.109)
On the first day of school, tell the students who you are and your expectations.
It is imperative teachers decide before the school year what they want to record. For example, attendance, homework assignments, classwork, test grades, skills mastered, project grades, extra-credit work, class participation, and cumulative progress.
“The three most important student behaviours that must taught on the first days of school are (1) classroom guidelines, (2) procedures, and (3) routines”. (p.141)
“Effective teachers explain the posted guidelines and are willing to make change as the classroom situation requires”. (p.150)
“Effective teachers communicate and work cooperatively with students’ homes”. (p.160)
“Research indicated that engaged time should be about 75 percent of the allocated time. Academic time (teacher model or teaches skill set or concept should be around 35 percent of the allocated time. At the end, two questions that should be answered are (1) Did the students learn what you wanted them to learn?, (2) Can students show what they have learned?” (p.200)
“Effective teachers teach students, not the subject or grade level”. (p.208)
“Effective assignments have the following aspects: (1) What you want the students to learn, (2) Write each step and objectives as a single sentence, and (3) Write in simple language”. (p.210)
“Focusing on objectives and goals makes the most difference in student achievement. If students know what they are to learn, you increase the chances they WILL learn”. (p.211)
“The following is a guide to writing a learning objective: (1) pick a verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), and (2) complete the sentence (ex. create a different system to catalog books in a library)”. (p.222)
“How to structure lessons for cooperative learning: (1) Specify the name of the group, (2) specify the size go the group, (3) state the purpose, materials, and steps of the activity, (4) teach the procedures, (5) specify and teach the cooperative skills needed, (6) hold individuals accountable for the work of the group, and (7) teach ways for students to evaluate how successfully they have worked together”. (p.258)
This is a fantastic book for fist-year teachers or veteran teachers who want to refine their skills. A sensational read to help you began the year.